5 cartoon people, one is in a wheelchair

Parents are often the first to notice when their child is:

  • not crawling
  • not talking
  • not walking

at the age when children normally develop these skills.

If there are any concerns, parents/carers should speak to their health visitor, GP or childcare provider.  Parents/carers can also contact the 0-5 SEND Support Service phoneline for advice and support.

More information can be found here.

Childcare providers and education support services will become involved to help with any additional needs of a child.  SEN Support should be offered by the childcare provider if a child has additional needs.  You can read more about this here.

Childcare providers and education support services would assess if an Education, Health and Care (EHC) Plan should be applied for.  These plans are for if help is needed for a child that isn't normally available in a nursery or school.  This includes childminders.  You can read more about EHC Plans here.

If a child has an Education, Health and Care (EHC) Plan

An Annual Review meeting should take place every 6 months.  This is to make sure the outcomes and provision in the plan are up to date.

Outcomes should be around the four preparation for adulthood areas:

1. employment, education and training
2. independent living
3. community inclusion, friends and relationships
4. health

It is important that a review happens before the child moves into full time school (Reception class / Foundation Stage 2). 

During this age period, young children should be learning to:

  • follow instructions. A child who is hearing or vision impaired will follow instructions in a different way.
  • adapt to new environments
  • play with other children
  • do real world play (builder / nurse / doctor)

Begin to look at primary schools in the local area from around age 2.  If a child doesn't have an Education, Health and Care Plan (EHCP) then applications are made through School Admissions.  If they have an EHCP, SEND Statutory Assessment and Review Service (SENDSARS) will send out a letter asking for school choices.  Settings will also discuss this at the EHCP annual review.

During this age period, young children should be learning to:

  • feed and drink
  • recognise the need to use the toilet
  • ask to go to the toilet
  • go to the toilet (with support or on their own)
  • recognise the need to wash their hands and know why this is important
  • do real world play (kitchens, DIY, cleaning)
  • identify their own clothing
  • get dressed and undressed with support or on their own
  • brush their teeth with support or on their own
  • make choices

During this age period, young children should be learning to:

  • make friends
  • have social interaction
  • show an interest in what others are doing
  • play and work alongside others
  • begin to recognise other people may have different ideas, thoughts and feelings
  • begin how to build and maintain relationships.  This could be with one adult, two children, a small group and unfamiliar people.
  • go on visits / day trips

During this age period, young children should be having:

  • checks at birth (hearing etc)
  • diet and food variety
  • 2 year old development check
  • immunisations

They should:

  • recognise feelings when they feel unwell or are in pain
  • know who to tell when they are feeling unwell
  • develop good bedtime routines with support
  • recognise, name and eat a range of foods with different textures and flavours
  • begin to categorise food.  For example, fruit, vegetables and meat.
  • begin to learn where their food comes from.  For example, from plants or animals
  • being to understand how important it is to drink and stay hydrated
  • begin to understand the difference bewteen healthy and unhealthy foods
  • begin to learn to brush their teeth and know why this is important to keep their teeth from decay
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